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torstai 11. toukokuuta 2017

Turkey, Cool Facts #178

<= 177. Greece                                                                                                               179. Cyprus =>

1. Byzantine Empire 

New capital 
Constantine I (r. 324-337) chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome

Partition of Rome 395
In 395 Theodosius I died and the Roman Empire was split between his two sons, Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. 

Byzantine's greatest extent 555
In 555 The Empire reached its greatest extent during the reign of Justinian I

Greek become official language
Heraclius (r. 610-641) adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. 

Territorial losses
The Byzantine-Sasanian War of 602-628 exhausted the Empire's resources and caused territorial losses during the Muslim conquests in the 600s. 

Macedonian Renaissance 867-1056
During the Macedonian dynasty (867-1056), the Empire started expanding again and experienced the Macedonian Renaissance. 

Battle of Manzikert 1071
The Macedonian Renaissance ended with a loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. 

Komnenian restoration 1081-1185
Komnenian restoration 1081-1185 recovered the Empire so much that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. 

Fourth Crusade 1202-1204
In 1204 Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade and the territories of the Empire were  divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.

Palaiologos Dynasty 1261-1453
1261 Recovery of Constantinople under the Palaiologos dynasty. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire ended the Byzantine Empire.

Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent in 555

2. Ottoman Empire 

In 1299 Oghuz Turk tribal leader Osman founded the empire.

Ottoman Empire in the 1300s
After 1354 the Ottomans entered Europe.

Ottoman Empire in the 1400s
Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended the Byzantine Empire.

Ottoman Empire in the 1500s-1600s 
During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), the Ottoman Empire was a huge multinational Empire controlling parts of Southeast Europe, Central Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. In the beginning of the 1600s the Empire contained 32 provinces and several vassal states. The Ottoman Empire reached its greatest extent during the rule of Sultan Mehmed VI 1648-1687.

Ottoman Empire in the 1700s
The Ottoman military system fell behind its European rivals the Habsburg and Russian Empires.

Ottoman Empire in the 1800s

The Ottomans lost Greece in 1830 and later other areas from the Balkans. The Russian expansion in the Crimean War 1853-1856 was ended only with the help of England and France. After the war against Russia in 1877-1878 Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became independent from the Ottoman Empire. 

Ottoman Empire in the 1900s
After the two Balkan wars in 1912-1913 the whole Balkan region god rid of Ottoman rule. Ottoman Empire was called the sick man of Europe. The internal problems in the empire caused finally the abolition of the sultanate in 1922. The Allied forces partitioned Ottoman Empire, which had been on the side of the Central Powers during World War I. 

Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent

3. Genocides committed by Ottoman Empire 

The Ottoman Empire committed genocides in the 1910s against some ethnic groups in its territory. 

Pontic Greek genocide 1913-1922 
- massacres against the indigenous Greek population
- death marches
- destruction of Christian Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments
- 450,000-750,000 deaths
- most of the refugees fled to Greece

Assyrian genocide 1914-1920
- mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire
- unlike the Armenians, there were no orders to deport the Assyrians
- 150,000-300,000 deaths

Armenian genocide 1915-1923
- stared with the deportation of about 235-270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders from Constantinople to Ankara, the majority of whom were murdered
- death marches to the Syrian desert 
- deprivation of food and water
- robbery, rape and massacre 
- 1,5 million deaths 
- Ottoman Empire recognized the genocide, but its successor Turkey hasn't 

Armenian civilians escorted to a prison by Ottoman soldiers 
Smyra massacre 1922

4. Turkish War of Independence 1919-1923

End of World WarOttoman Empire fought with Germany in the Central Powers during World War I. In October 1918 the Ottoman forces surrendered to the Allied forces. 

Treaty of Sevres 1920The treaty of Sevres was an agreement to partition the Ottoman Empire into smaller parts, because it was considered too weak to maintain peace. According to the treaty parts of Turkey were given to Greece, Italy and Armenia. Some areas of Turkey were under British and French surveillance. There was a suggestion of creating an independent Kurdish territory as well. 

Ratification of the Treaty of Sevres
Greece didn't ratify nor sign the treaty, but it demanded for more Ottoman areas with Greek population for itself. Sultan Mehmed VI and Ottoman negotiators signed the treaty, but the Ottoman parliament didn't ratify because it was already dissolved before. Mustafa Kemal, the leader of the Turkish National Movement, didn't accept this, so he declared the Turkish War of Independence. 

War fronts against Armenia, Greece and FranceTurkey fought in three fronts, in the east against Greece, in the south against France and in the west against Armenia. The Turkish forces defeated the Greeks, who had advanced in the inner areas of Turkey. They also captured back areas from Armenia, that had been given away from the Ottoman Empire. Italy had got a part of Anatolia, but it didn't defend its part in any way. 

Treaty of Lausanne 1923
The Treaty of Lausanne was signed after the victory of Mustafa Kemal's troops. This treaty officially settled the conflict that had existed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied forces since the onset of World War I. The treaty also defined the borders of the modern Turkish Republic. 

Abolition of Sultanate
Mustafa Kemal abolished the Sultanate and he became the first president of Turkey in 1923. In 1934 the Turkish Parliament granted him the surname Atatürk, which means "Father of the Turks". 

Treaty of Sevres 1920
Turkish War of Independence

- Kurdish people have been prohibited to use their own language 
- Kurdish people don't have normal ethnic minority rights and they are called Mountain Turks 
- From the Turkish population of almost 80 million people, 18-20 million are Kurdish 
- Kuridsh people in Turkey live mainly in Turkish Kurdistan in the southeast of the country 
- Kuridsh people together with Armenians established the independent Republic of Ararat, which was independent from 1927 until 1930, when the Turkish army defeated the new republic 
- The Turkish separatist group PKK was founded in 1978 and in 1984 they started an armed insurgency campaign against Turkey

Areas in Turkey with a Kurdish majority 


2300BC Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia
2000-1700BC Hittites gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians
1950BC The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey
1200BC The coast of Anatolia was settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks
1180BC Indo-European Phrygians achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians
590BC Urartu was conquered by the Medes
500s BC All of modern-day Turkey was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire
334BC Alexander the Great conquered Turkey
323BC After Alexander's death Turkey was divided into several small Hellenistic kingdoms
324 Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome
395 After the death of Theodosius I the Roman Empire was split between his two sons, Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire
1071 The Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert and started the Turkification process in the area
1243 The Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols, causing the slow disintegration of the Seljuk Empire
1453 The Ottomans completed their conquest of of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital Constantinople
1514 Sultan Selim I expanded the Empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating the forces of Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran
1517 Selim I expanded Ottoman rule into Algeria and Egypt
1700-1800s The Ottoman Empire started to decline as it lost Austria to Hungary and the coasts of Black Sea to Russia
1876 First constitution of the Ottoman Empire
1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War after which Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became independent and Bulgaria got autonomy
1907 The Young Turk Revolution restored the Ottoman constitution and parliament 30 years after their suspension by Sultan Abdulhamid in 1878
1912-1913 After two Balkan Wars the Balkan region got rid of Ottoman rule
1915-1917 Armenian genocide where about 800,000-1,5 million Armenians were killed
1920 The Ottoman Empire was partitioned
1922 The Turkish Parliament in Ankara abolished the Sultanate, thus ending the 623 years of monarchical Ottoman rule
1923 Turkey was internationally recognized in the Treaty of Lausanne
1938 Mustafa Kemal died and Ismet Inönü became Turkey's second president
1939 Turkey annexed the Republic of Hatay 
1940s Turkey stayed neutral in World War II
1946 First multiparty elections in Turkey
1952 Turkey joined Nato
1960, 1971 and 1980 military coups in Turkey
1974 Turkey invaded Cyprus
1983 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was established
1984 Kurdish separatist group PKK began an armed insurgency against Turkey
1993 Tansu Ciller became Turkey's first female Prime Minister
2002 Recep Tayyip Erdogan's party AKP won the elections and again in 2007 and 2011
2013 Widespread protests erupted in many Turkish provinces
2014 Erdogan became the president of Turkey
2016 Unsuccessful coup attempt to oust the government 

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