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sunnuntai 21. toukokuuta 2017

Cyprus, Cool Facts #179

<= 178. Turkey                                                                                                            180. Romania => 



1. Cyprus' Name Origins 

Cyprus got its name from copper, or actually chalcopyrite, which is a source of copper. The Phoenician merchants got chalcopyrite from Cyprus 5000 years ago. Cyprus had so large copper ore deposits on the island that the island gave its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium meaning "metal of Cyprus". Later the name was shortened to Cuprum. Currently the copper deposits are virtually exhausted.
Chalcopyrite


2. Cyprus after Byzantine and before Ottoman rule 

Before the Third Crusade in 1191, Cyprus had been part of the Byzantine Empire since the division of the Roman Empire in 395. From 649 Muslims also launched raids to Cyprus from Levant for 300 years.

Richard I of England captures Cyprus 1191-1192
In 1191 Richard I of England captured the island from Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus. Richard I used Cyprus as a major supply base that was safe from the Saracens.

Knights Templar 
After a year in 1192 Richard I sold Cyprus to the Knights Templar. The Knights Templar in turn sold Cyprus to Guy of Lusignan after a bloody revolt in Cyprus.

Lusignan Dynasty 1192-1473
Guy of Lusignan was the King of Cyprus in 1192-1194. In 1194-1196 Guy's brother Aimery was the Lord of Cyprus before he was recognized as King of Cyprus in 1196 by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. The last Lusignan King James II died in 1473 after which the Republic of Venice assumed control of the island.

Republic of Venice 
So the Republic of Venice assumed control of the island in 1473, but formally Cyprus was annexed in 1489, following the abdication of Catherine. Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided Cyprus. The Venetian rule finally ended in 1570, when the Ottoman Empire launched an assault with 60,000 troops and brought the island under Ottoman control.


Map of Nicosia in Cyprus, created by the Venetian cartographer Giacomo Franco


3. British rule in Cyprus 

End of Ottoman rule
The Ottoman Empire ceded Cyprus to Great Britain in 1878 after the Russo-Turkish war. In return the Ottoman Empire got the British support against Russia. Cyprus actually remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 1914. 

Offer to Greece
In 1915, Britain offered Cyprus to Constantine I of Greece on condition that Greece join World War I on the side of the British, but Constantine declined the offer. 

British colonial time
Cyprus became a British Crown Colony in 1925. After World War II there were strong demands by the Greek Cypriots to join Greece, which was opposed by Turkish Cypriots. 

Independence
In 1960 Cyprus became independent. Later the Greek and Turkish Cypriots drifted into civil war. 


First President of Cyprus, Makarios III


4. Division of Cyprus

ConflictsAfter the independence of Cyprus intercommunal violence between Turkish and Greek Cypriots erupted in 1963. In 1964 Turkey tried to invade Cyprus, but the US stopped it after sending a telegram to Turkey about the consequences of invasion. 

Enosis vs division 
Greek Cypriots favored enosis, which meant joining Greece. However the Turkish Cypriots had favored staying under British control before independence and after it they favored dividing the island. 

Division
After the conflict in Cyprus in 1974 the island was split into two parts. Greek military junta had carried out a coup in Cyprus to unite the island with Greece and five days afterwards Turkish army invaded the island. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was declared in 1983, which is only recognized by Turkey.

Division of Cyprus

5. People and languages of Cyprus 

People (2001) 

77% Greek Cypriots 
18% Turkish Cypriots

Foreign residents (2011): 
Greece 29,300

UK 24,000
Romania 23,700
Bulgaria 18,500

Philippines 9,400
Russia 8,200
Sri Lanka 7,300
Vietnam 7,000
Syria 3,100
India 2,900

Languages 

Greek and Turkish official languages 

Armenian and Cypriot Maronite Arabic recognized as minority languages
English widely spoken 

Russian widely spoken among the ethnic minorities



Cypriots


Timeline

10,000BC Earliest confirmed cite of human activity in Aetokremnos
1400BC Mycenaean Greek started visiting Cyprus
700s BC Phoenician colonies were founded on the coast of Cyprus
708BC Assyria started its one century long rule
545BC Persian rule started
333BC Alexander the Great conquered Cyprus and after his death the island came under Ptolemaic Egypt rule
58BC The Roman Republic started ruling Cyprus
395 Cyprus became part of the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire, when Rome was divided
649 Muslim armies started their devastating raids in Cyprus, which lasted for the next 300 years
965 Byzantine rule was restored in Cyprus
1191 During the Third Crusade, Richard I of England captured the island
1192 Richard I of England sold Cyprus to the Knights Templar, who in turn sold it to Guy de Lusignan 
1473 Republic of Venice assumed control of the island
1489 Venice formally annexed the Kingdom of Cyprus
1570 Ottoman Empire started ruling Cyprus after a full-scale assault
1821 Several Greek Cypriots left for Greece to join the Greek forces in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire
1878 After the Russo-Turkish War Cyprus was administered by the British although it remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 1914
1914 The British Empire formally annexed Cyprus
1925 Cyprus became a British crown colony
1960 Cyprus gained independence after the Zürich and London Agreement between the UK, Greece and Turkey
1963 Intercommuncal violence erupted between Turkish and Greek Cypriots
1964 Turkey tried to invade Cyprus, but the US stopped it after sending a telegram to Turkey about the consequences of invasion
1974 Greek military junta carried out a coup in Cyprus to unite the island with Greece and five days afterwards Turkish army invaded the island. After the conflict Cyprus was split into two parts
1983 The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was declared, which is only recognized by Turkey
2004 Cyprus joined the European Union
2015 North and South Cyprus relaunched reunification talks 

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