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keskiviikko 28. joulukuuta 2016

Ireland, Cool Facts #159

<= 158. Guyana                                                                                                   160. Great Britain => 

1. Ireland and Great Britain historical relationship 

Celtic rule 
The Viking rule ended in 1014, when the Celtic king Brian Borun defeated the Vikings. The Celtic rule was then ended in the 1170s by King Henry II of England.

Treaty of Windsor 1175
During the Norman invasion of Ireland the High King of Ireland Rory O'Connor accepted King Henry II of England as the overlord of the Irish kings. The treaty broke down quickly because Rory O'Connor was unable to prevent Norman knights carving out new territories in Ireland.

Crown of Ireland Act 1542 
The King of England, Henry VIII of the Tudor dynasty, declared himself the King of Ireland.

Nine Years' War 1594-1603
Gaelish Irish chieftains unsuccessfully fought against the English rule in Ireland.

Irish Confederate Wars 1641-1653
A series of civil wars in the kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. The war was both a religious and ethnic conflict, fought over who would govern Ireland. This conflict was the most destructive conflict in Irish history. As a result of the war the Irish Catholic Confederation supported by the English and Scottish Royalists were defeated by the English Parliamentarians.

Ireland gets autonomy in 1782 

Acts of Union 1800
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 merging the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. One of the reasons of the union was the fear of an independent Ireland siding against Great Britain with revolutionary France.

Irish War of Independence 1919-1921
The war started after the Sinn Féin Irish Republic Army proclaimed an Irish Republic. The guerrilla war ended in truce in 1921. The Anglo-Irish Treaty was concluded giving Ireland complete independence as Irish Free State.

Irish history timeline until 1884
Irish history timeline 1913-2015

2. Irish Diaspora 

Since around 1700s, between 9-10 million people born in Ireland have emigrated. This amount is higher than Ireland's historical population peak in the 1840s with its 8,5 million citizens.

Protestants against Catholics
Around the 1690s the Catholic King of England was defeated by the Protestants. Afterwards the British tried to prohibit the Catholic church in Ireland. Catholic people were forbidden to own land and they weren't making decisions in the administration. This is one of the major causes why a lot of Irish emigrated to North America. Protestants constituted only 10% of the population in Ireland, but they controlled both the economy and politics.

Great Famine 
The Great Famine between 1845-1852 caused the death of about one million people. Because of the famine over a million more people emigrated especially to North America. Due to mortality and emigration the population of Ireland fell by 20-25%. The western parts of the island were almost entirely deserted.

Irish diaspora

3. Famines in Ireland

Famine of 1740-1741
- 38% of the population of 2,5 million people was estimated to have killed
- The loss of people was proportionately even greater than during the Great Famine of 1845-1852
- Was caused by extremely cold and then rainy weather in successive years
- The extraordinary climatic shock, the "Great Frost" struck Ireland and the rest of Europe between December 1739 and September 1741
- The weather caused a series of poor grain harvests, a shortage of milk and frost damage to potatoes

1660-2012 Temperatures 

Great Famine 1845-1852 
- Over 1 million people died
- Potato blight was the cause of the famine and the fact that one third of the population was dependent  on potato
- The Corn Laws and Penal Laws worsened the famine
- At the time of the famine, Ireland was part of Great Britain
- The famine soured the further the strained relations between the Irish people and the British Crown
- The famine boosted Irish nationalism republicanism
- A lot of people emigrated to North America because of the famine

Famine of 1879 
- Caused hunger rather than mass deaths
- Was the last main Irish famine
- Caused by cold weather, potato blight and cholera among chickens
- Since the Great Famine a railway system had been built allowing food to be imported to the west of Ireland instead of weeks
- The considerable Irish American population gave aid to Ireland by sending food, money and clothes
- Home Rule League, Land League and clergy successfully campaigned for British Crown aid

4. Irish Language 

- About 5-10% of Irish people use actively the Irish language
- Irish and English are official languages of Ireland
- Irish language has influences from Latin, Old Norse, French and English
- Irish was the majority tongue until the early 1800s, and since then a minority language
- Revival efforts of Irish language are continuing in both Ireland and Northern Ireland
Scottish Gaelic and Manx are the closest languages to Irish

Celtic languages

5. Separation of Northern Ireland 

Irish War of Independence 1919-1921
In 1918 the Sinn Féin Irish republican party won the elections in december. In January 1919 they formed a breakaway government and declared independence from Britain. After this the independence war between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the British government started.  The war ended in truce in 1921, but violence continued until June 1922, mostly in Northern Ireland.

The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921
The treaty ended British rule in 26 counties of Ireland and the Irish Free State was created as self-governing state with Dominion status on 6 December 1922. Six north-eastern counties remained within the Great Britain, which constitute the present-day Northern Ireland. So the treaty separated Northern Ireland from the rest of Ireland.

Irish Civil War 1922-1923
The Irish civil war started after the Anglo-Irish Treaty between Irish republicans and Irish nationalists. IRA formed the republican Anti-Treaty forces and the Free State forces the Pro-Treaty forces. The Anti-Treaty forces opposed the fact that part of Ireland remained within Great Britain and that Ireland didn't get full independence but only the status of a British dominion. In 1923 the Free State forces backed by the British defeated the Anti-Treaty forces.

Northern Ireland after the separation
The majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom. Most of the people were also Protestant descendants of British colonists, however there was a significant mainly Catholic minority who wanted a united Ireland.

The hostilities between the Protestant unionists and Catholic nationalists erupted into three decades of violence in the 1960s known as "the Troubles". The 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process including the decommissioning of weapons. Sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems in Northern Ireland.

Timeline of Ireland and Great Britain


12,000 BC Ireland became separated from Great Britain after the sea levels rose due to ice melting
10,500 BC Earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland
5600 BC Great Britain became separated from continental Europe
4500 BC Neolithic settlers started cultivating cereal and erecting stone monuments
2500 BC Bronze Age started in Ireland bringing innovations like the wheel, harnessing oxen, weaving textiles, brewing alcohol and metalworking
431 Bishop Palladius arrived in Ireland on a Christian mission
432 Saint Patrick arrived in Ireland promulgating Christianity like Bishop Palladius the previous year
563 The Irish monk Saint Columba founded a mission spreading Celtic Christianity and learning to England, Scotland and the Frankish Empire
800s Waves of Viking raiders arrived in Ireland plundering Irish monasteries and towns
1014 The Celtic King Brian Borun defeated the Vikings and ended their rule in Ireland
1175 Treaty of Windsor, a territorial agreement during the Norman invasion of Ireland between King Henry II of England and the High King of Ireland Rory O'Connor about accepting Henry II as the overlord of the Irish kings
1200s The Norman-Irish established a feudal system throughout much of Ireland
1297 Parliament of Ireland was established
1367 Statues of Kilkenny, a set of laws trying to prevent the assimilation of the Normans into Irish society
1494 Poynings' Law, the Irish Parliament had to get the approval of the English Parliament for their decisions
1542 The King of England, Henry VIII of the Tudor dynasty declared himself the King of Ireland
1594-1603 Nine Years' War, Gaelish Irish chieftains fought unsuccessfully against English rule in Ireland
1642-1649 Irish Civil War
1740-1741 Irish Famine, an estimated 300,000-480,000 people died due to cold weather resulting in poor harvests
1782 Poynings' Law was repealed and Ireland got autonomy
1798 A rebellion by the Society of United Irishmen, with the aim of creating an independent Ireland
1800 Both British and Irish parliaments passed Acts of Union
1801 Kingdom of Ireland and Kingdom of Great Britain merged to create a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
1845-1852 The Great Famine caused the deaths of one million Irish people and over a million emigrated to escape the famine, mainly to the United States
1905 Nationalists founded the Sinn Féin party
1918 The pro-independence Sinn Féin party received overwhelming endorsement in the general elections
1919 Sinn Féin Irish Republic Army proclaimed an Irish Republic and IRA launched a three-year guerrilla war
1921 The guerrilla war ended in truce, but violence continued until June 1922, mostly in Northern Ireland
1921 The Anglo-Irish Treaty was concluded and it gave Ireland complete independence as Irish Free State in its home affairs and practical independence for foreign policy, but Northern Ireland remained part of Great Britain
1922-1923 Irish Civil War was waged between Irish republicans and Irish nationalists over the Anglo-Irish Treaty
1932 Eamon De Valera became prime minister
1937 Ireland adopted a new constitution with the lead of De Valera
1949 The state was officially declared the Republic of Ireland
1973 Ireland joined the EEC (European Economic Community)
1990 Mary Robinson was elected as the country's first female president
1994 IRA declared cease-fire
1997 Mary McAleese was Robinson's successor as president and she was the first president from Northern Ireland
2000 Ireland was the sixth richest country in the world by GDP per capita
2008 The financial crisis ended the booming growth of the economy and Ireland experienced afterwards a deep recession